What Are The Main Sources Of Aromatic Hydrocarbons?

What are examples of aromatic hydrocarbons?

Aromatic hydrocarbons are especially stable because they are both cyclic and unsaturated.

The electrons that create the double bonds are delocalized and can move between parent atoms.

Examples of aromatic hydrocarbons include benzene, toluene, purines and pyrimidines..

What are aromatic hydrocarbons based on?

Aromatic hydrocarbons are a special class of unsaturated hydrocarbon based on a six carbon ring moiety called benzene. The saturated hydrocarbon cyclohexane is transformed into the aromatic hydrocarbon benzene by adding three alternating carbon–carbon double bonds, as shown in Fig. 1.11.

Why are they called aromatic hydrocarbons?

Aromatic compounds, originally named because of their fragrant properties, are unsaturated hydrocarbon ring structures that exhibit special properties, including unusual stability, due to their aromaticity. They are often represented as resonance structures containing single and double bonds.

What is the functional group of aromatic hydrocarbons?

An aromatic functional group or other substituent is called an aryl group. The earliest use of the term aromatic was in an article by August Wilhelm Hofmann in 1855. Hofmann used the term for a class of benzene compounds, many of which have odors (aromas), unlike pure saturated hydrocarbons.

What are the common aromatic hydrocarbon and their importance?

Aromatic hydrocarbons are especially stable because they are both cyclic and unsaturated. The electrons that create the double bonds are delocalized and can move between parent atoms. Examples of aromatic hydrocarbons include benzene, toluene, purines and pyrimidines.

What are aromatic compounds give example?

Aromatic compounds are chemical compounds that consist of conjugated planar ring systems accompanied by delocalized pi-electron clouds in place of individual alternating double and single bonds. They are also called aromatics or arenes. The best examples are toluene and benzene.

What is the general formula of aromatic hydrocarbon?

The aromatic hydrocarbons are “unsaturated hydrocarbons which have one or more planar six-carbon rings called benzene rings, to which hydrogen atoms are attached with the general formula CnHn“. Many aromatic hydrocarbons contain a benzene ring (also referred to as an aromatic ring).

What is the most important aromatic compound?

BenzeneBenzene (C6H6) is the best-known aromatic compound and the parent to which numerous other aromatic compounds are related. The six carbons of benzene are joined in a ring, having the planar geometry of a regular hexagon in which all of the C—C bond distances are equal.

Why are aromatic hydrocarbons dangerous?

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are made whenever substances are burned. PAHs are also found at former coal-gasification sites. Breathing smoke or coming into contact with contaminated soil exposes people to PAHs. Some PAHs may cause cancer and may affect the eyes, kidneys, and liver.

Which one is an aromatic hydrocarbon?

An aromatic hydrocarbon is a cyclic hydrocarbon with alternating double and single bonds and (4n + 2) π electrons. The most common example is benzene (n = 1). Aromatic hydrocarbons are much more stable than their noncyclic counterparts are. The carbon-carbon bonds in aromatic hydrocarbons are equivalent.

What makes a substance aromatic?

Aromatic compounds, also known as arenes or aromatics, are chemical compounds that contain conjugated planar ring systems with delocalized pi electron clouds instead of discrete alternating single and double bonds. Typical aromatic compounds are benzene and toluene. They should satisfy Hückel’s rule.

How can polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons be prevented?

Stop smoking and avoid exposure to smoke. Smoking and exposure to second hand smoke increase the risk of lung cancer. Cigarette smoke contains PAHs and other carcinogenic substances. Exposure to PAHs by smoking or second hand smoke may increase the risk of overexposure to PAHs and PAH related disease.

What structure do all aromatic hydrocarbons have in common?

Aromatic compounds are ring structures with unusual stability due to delocalized pi electron density that is shared between all of the carbon atoms in the ring.

How do you identify aromatic hydrocarbons?

For a compound to be considered aromatic, it must be flat, cyclic, and conjugated and it must obey Huckel’s rule. Huckel’s rule states that an aromatic compound must have pi electrons in the overlapping p orbitals in order to be aromatic (n in this formula represents any integer).

Do hydrocarbons cause cancer?

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are made whenever substances are burned. PAHs are also found at former coal-gasification sites. Breathing smoke or coming into contact with contaminated soil exposes people to PAHs. Some PAHs may cause cancer and may affect the eyes, kidneys, and liver.

Where are aromatic hydrocarbons found?

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of chemicals that occur naturally in coal, crude oil, and gasoline. They also are produced when coal, oil, gas, wood, garbage, and tobacco are burned. PAHs generated from these sources can bind to or form small particles in the air.

What is another name for aromatic hydrocarbon?

An aromatic hydrocarbon or arene (or sometimes aryl hydrocarbon) is a hydrocarbon with sigma bonds and delocalized pi electrons between carbon atoms forming a circle. In contrast, aliphatic hydrocarbons lack this delocalization.

What is meant by aromatic hydrocarbons?

Aromatic hydrocarbons are a special class of unsaturated hydrocarbon based on a six carbon ring moiety called benzene. The saturated hydrocarbon cyclohexane is transformed into the aromatic hydrocarbon benzene by adding three alternating carbon–carbon double bonds, as shown in Fig.

What are some examples of aromatic compounds?

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are molecules containing two or more simple aromatic rings fused together by sharing two neighboring carbon atoms (see also simple aromatic rings). Examples are naphthalene, anthracene, and phenanthrene.

How do hydrocarbons affect human health?

Many are not harmful unless the oily liquid gets into the lungs. … However, if it enters the lungs, it can cause a pneumonia-like condition; irreversible, permanent lung damage; and even death. Some hydrocarbons can cause other effects, including coma, seizures, irregular heart rhythms or damage to the kidneys or liver.

What is aromatic content?

Aromatics (content) Aromatics are hydrocarbons containing a benzene ring of six unsaturated carbon atoms. Benzene is the the smallest, most basic aromatic compound, but other common ones include toluene and xylene. Aromatics in petroleum products.